russian civil war casualties

Gran, M.M. In fact, more than half the Soviet population was affected. Includes 5 activities aimed at students 11-14 years old (KS3) & 5 activities aimed at students 14-16 year old (GCSE). 7-46. Refugees in Russia During World War I, Bloomington 1999. The uncertain nature of these calculations, the delayed national mourning and private mourning hampered by distance and false news made these losses unbearable for the population. The gulf between the Chief of Staff and high-ranking officers became larger, making the general mutiny in 1917 and the organisation of the Red Army in 1918-1920 possible. At the end of the Civil War, the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. 1-25. The industrial production value descended to one seventh of the value of 1913, and agriculture to one third. Nevertheless, the incertitude was due above all to structural factors, the first of which was the tangle of institutions whose job it was to estimate the losses. Brower, Daniel: Turkestan and the Fate of Russian Empire, London & New York 2003, pp. To conclude, we will try to grasp the social and cultural impact the losses had on Russia during three distinct stages of its history: the empire, revolutions, and the Soviet regime. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. The collective mourning for those lost, fundamental for maintaining the unity of the population, largely failed to take shape in Russia. The results of the civil war were momentous. The Bolsheviks found that this principle applied to themselves after October, when they expected to disengage quickly from World War I. The army updated its lists as well as it could, and sometimes communicated its results. Preobraženskij, S.A.: «О pomošči nervno-psihičeskim invalidam» report to the Panrussian congress of psycho-neurologists, Petrograd, 3 January 1924, GARF, f. 4347 (Vserokompom), op. There was a project to create a memorial day for the soldiers, like that of 2 November in France, but this never eventuated. If tuberculosis was considered a disability, the common pathologies that were due to extreme fatigue or poor food struggled to be recognised as such in Russia during the war. The food crisis reached its peak in the latter regions during 1917, 1918 and 1919, then hit the agricultural provinces, including the towns, in 1920 and above all in 1921. To die in the ranks of the Tsar’s army represented a giant step towards oblivion: the insufficient preparation of the Russian health and mortuary services, a somewhat unprepared statistics bureau and the localisation of the battles on the borders of the empire put the seal on the transient character of burial places. Ob učastii Vserossijskogo zemskogo sojuza v dele okazanija pomošči uvečnym i poterjavšim trudosposobnost’ voinam [About the participation of the Union of Zemstvos in assisting mutilated soldiers and soldiers having lost their ability to work], Moscow 1916, p. 62. Apart from the Slavs (including the Poles), the Chief of Staff only considered it safe to give arms to Jews (who could not be officers). Based on the statistics, the following losses can be identified: 1. [3], Today it is still just as difficult to determine how many men were mobilised by Russia between 1914 and 1918, how many fought, how many were in prisoner-of-war camps and how many perished. [23] Ruzski made his request just before the February Revolution occurred. This was a result of the spatial and temporal nature of the occupation of the western fringes of the empire. Violent protests and raids on the institutions of the Russian colonizers and the colonial administration set up in the 1860s ensued. Calculating those killed during the Great War was neither easy during that time, nor during the following decades. Furthermore, they were used as outlets for the frustrations of the “white” units during the civil war. Gatrell, Peter: A Whole Empire Walking. The February Revolution changed the course of the war; under intense political pressure, the Tsar abdicated and the Russian Provisional Government … While famine caused over 6 million extra deaths between 1914 and 1922, the various epidemics (Spanish flu in 1919, typhoid in 1920-1921 and cholera in 1922) caused about 7 million and the fighting in the two conflicts directly caused 5 million. [17] The poor hygiene and meagre food supplies, the hostility of the local populations as well as fatal accidents made an exact number of victims difficult to establish – a foretaste of the civil war to come. Yet many captured soldiers developed neurosis or became chronically ill: 650,000 were counted in Germany alone. Following a consideration of these questions, the large number of civilian victims must be emphasized. : Istorija voennyh poter’ [History of war losses], Saint Petersburg 1994, pp. Several pogroms and mass repression reignited the political and ethnic fractures in the empire. (eds. (See article below) Union Civil War Casualties. On 24 December 1916, Nikolai V. Ruzski (1854-1918) proposed 11 May, the feast of SS Cyril and Methodius, but the church authorities preferred the day of the Holy Spirit. In August 1916, detachments of Kazakh horsemen swept down on the Russians around Lake Issyk-Kul, killed the men, carried off 1,500 women and children as hostages and burned everything in their path. In this case, statistical incertitude was due to the progress in Russian and international psychiatry which was both sensitive and much-debated. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus alone in 1920. Finally, Russia’s delay in setting up institutions to deal with prisoners of war was a major factor throughout the conflict, in spite of the insistence of each institutional player on the importance of information for families. Sazonov, L.I. The American Civil War was the nation's bloodiest war. In the early 1900s, the Russian Civil War caused as many as 9 million deaths. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. Millions more were also killed by widespread starvation, wholesale massacres by both sides, and pogroms against Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia. Le retour des invalides russes de la Grande Guerre, 1914-1929», Cahiers du monde russe, 51/1 (January-March 2010), pp. Among the others, 27.2 percent were given leave to recover, 25.2 percent were declared unfit, 13.4 percent remained after the war in specialised establishments to complete their recovery and 10.2 percent were transferred to other provinces or institutions. The peasantry took the opportunity to unite against all non-peasants and solve conflicts over land and other social conflicts themselves. Casualties. Poteri vooruženyh sil [Russia and USSR in the 20. Russian prisoners of war in Germany, 1914-1922]. [Works of the commission of inquiry about the sanitary consequences of the war, 1914-1920], Gran, M.M./Kurkina, P.I./Kuvšinnikova, P.A. The Russian Civil War suffocated the revolution, destroyed democracy, and cleared the way for Stalinist dictatorship. There did exist in Soviet Russia a memory not only private, but intimate, did of the losses suffered during the Great War. Russian Civil War (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. By 1922, there were at least 7,000,000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly 10 years of devastation from the Great War and the civil war. About 15 percent of all the soldiers mobilised thus found themselves expatriated, brutally separated from their families and their comrades, shunted from one camp to another in cattle wagons or on foot. Krivošeev, Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. On the one hand the geographical distance, the lack of clear information and insufficient resources meant that family assistance could not be developed the way it was in France. During the Red Terror, the Cheka carried out an estimated 250,000 summary executions of "enemies of the people". Casualties and consequences of the war. Russian Revolution - Causes, Timeline & Definition - HISTORY Finally, the 1918 civil war intensified the terrible human cost of the conflict. Only a strong resistance on the part of the civilian authority stopped the operation degenerating into death marches like those of the Armenian genocide. World War II was a war that spanned from 1939 to 1945. Read more about this topic:  Russian Civil War, Aftermath, Allied Intervention in The Russian Civil War. American Civil War casualties are those soldiers, both Union and Confederate, who died, were wounded, went missing or were captured. Situated outside Russia itself, then outside the USSR, the latter by necessity gradually, although only marginally, became part of the history of European pacifism and the history being built of the new nations born of the war. Alexandre Sumpf, Université de Strasbourg, Section Editors: Boris Kolonickij; Nikolaus Katzer. Most of them were civilians. Finally, this remembrance was necessarily curtailed on account of the scattering of the Tsar’s subjects in several nations and the exile of an important part of the social élite between 1918 and 1922. It also shocked international observers. Did the events of the war reveal illnesses which were already present, or did they produce specific pathologies? An estimated 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine, mostly by the White Army. 35-64. Ždanov, N.M.: Russkie voennoplennye v mirovoj vojne 1914-1918 [Russian prisoners of war during the world war, 1914-1920)], Moscow 1920, p. 77. [9], Chronic illnesses represented a significant proportion of the cases of disability. Forced to react to the civil war, Soviet Russia turned into the most ambitious welfare state of the immediate post-war years. With the end of the war, the Communist Party no longer faced an acute military threat to its existence and power. : «Poteri russkoj armii v vojnu 1914-1918» [The losses of the army during the 1914-1918 war], Trudy komissii po obsledovaniju sanitarnyh posledstvij vojny 1914-1920 gg. The first inventory of the archives of the bureau of the number of losses on the fronts of the world war keeps the lists by unit. [6] Thus, with an average figure of 5.15 million soldiers who passed through healthcare services (2,844,500 wounded and 2,303,680 sick), we reach a total of 1.14 million young men more or less handicapped (67,000 of whom were completely disabled). [5] Out of 103,194 wounded and subsequently treated in the hospitals of Petrograd, only 24 percent were sent back directly to the front. Lastly, the most unique factor from the perspective of Russian military losses is the astounding number of those “unaccounted for”. The results of the civil war were momentous. Nestor Makhno Nestor Makhno Addendum: Civilian Casualties, The Russian Civil War and the 30 Years War. Understand the conflict in Ukraine since it erupted in 2014 and track the latest developments around Russian and U.S. involvement on the Global Conflict Tracker from the Center for Preventive Action. At most, other nationalities had the right to form small cavalry units (Caucasia), of riflemen (the Baltic lands) or labourers (Turkestan). Culture, National Identity and German Occupation in World War I, Cambridge 2000. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia.The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army.The Red Army was an army of communists.The White Army opposed the communists. Thus, the assessment of military losses in the Russian empire depended on how these figures were used at the time or after the war. However, the perceived threat of another intervention, combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries, most notably the German Revolution, contributed to the continued militarization of Soviet society. The young nation experienced bloodshed of a magnitude that has not been equaled since by any other American conflict. Finally, the civil war which followed the Great War made the demographic toll and political significance of these losses far heavier. This figure does not take into account the wounded who were not evacuated, which would bring the total to 3,813,827. Russia - Russia - The Civil War and War Communism (1918–21): One side can start a war, but it takes two to end one. Anglo-Irish War: 1919 1921 776 : 898 : 1674 Military includes Royal Irish Constabulary. War Communism saved the Soviet government during the Civil War, but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. The Russian Civil War - When did it end? The number of horses declined from 35 million in 1916 to 24 million in 1920, and cattle from 58 to 37 million. is licensed under: CC by-NC-ND 3.0 Germany - Attribution, Non-commercial, No Derivative Works. During the war, debates within psychiatry questioned the terminology and the role of the war in causing psychiatric illnesses. Basically, several parties within the country sought to overthrow what was once the Russian Empire and the Soviets took over.They started out in St. Petersburg, and then expanded. It was the result of the German defeat in World War I, Polish nationalism, and Bolshevik expansionism in the wake of the Russian Civil War. At the turn of 1920, Russia entered its seventh year of war. Around 2,000 settlers, ten times more than in Turkestan, lost their lives in a new anti-colonial war. In September 1914, an army commander evicted the entire Jewish population in the Polish fortress of Pulawy, only allowing them twenty-four hours to leave. O. Nagornaja, quoting the estimations of Levickij for the distribution of invalids in the Russian provinces, Drugoj voennyj opyt. Novosel’skij, S.A.: «Vljanie vojny na estestvennoe dviženie naselenija» [The influence of the war on the natural evolution of the population], Trudy komissii, p. 115. La Grande Guerre dans l’histoire culturelle de l’Europe, Paris 2008. Letters of 27 November and 24 December 1916. Poteri vooruženyh sil, p. 101. 161, 163. Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack Host sentenced 25,000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919. The repression extinguished the revolt within a month in Turkestan, but it continued among the neighbouring Kazakh nomads. The civil war was particularly violent in the old Pale of Settlement – the western regions of the empire where the tsarist laws had confined the Jews from 1791 onwards, forbidding them to enter the main towns and villages. [15] This can be explained by the growth of the urban population with the arrival of refugees, the wounded and sick, and the high level of infant mortality. Beyond the figures that are still debated, war losses threw whole groups that were important to the empire off balance: the professional army, the Slav peasants, the western territory with its rich agriculture and developing industry, the colonies of Central Asia and the Jews in the Pale of Settlement. The Russian Civil War was known as a war between the “Whites” and the “Reds.” The Reds were … In 1916, the specialists of Zemstvo considered that 22.2 percent of the wounded and sick had permanently lost their capacity to work, 1.3 percent of whom were no longer autonomous. d. ^ World War I figures include expeditions in North Russia and Siberia. With a population of 150 million people, the Russian Empire, seems to have suffered proportionally fewer losses during the war than France or Germany. In total, 50 percent of the men the army considered fit for service were mobilized. A calculation made after the fall of the Soviet Union estimated the number at 439,369: one-quarter of the 1.89 million deaths in battle. Between 2.5 and 3 million soldiers of the Russian Empire shared the experience of captivity during the First World War, especially in Germany. Gran, M. M. / Kurkina, P. I. Sumpf, Alexandre: War Losses (Russian Empire) , in: 1914-1918-online. The statistics published by healthcare organisations related both to space (care on the spot, immediately behind the lines or evacuation) and time (return to combat, convalescence, discharge). [19] The unrest first grew in the oasis zone before reaching the towns in July. The towns are full of refuse. In effect, there were, respectively, 23,000 and 22,000 deaths per month, as against 8,000 in the first five months of the war. The civil war saw pillage and requisitioning develop, especially as uncontrolled floods of migrants hindered the redistribution of agricultural products between regions that over-produced and regions that consumed. [2] Its mission was to prove that Russia had been a victim of the conflict and of foreign intervention during the civil war. As many as 10 million lives were lost as a result of the Russian Civil War, and the overwhelming majority of these were civilian casualties. The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War started on 30 September 2015, with 4,000 Russian military personnel being stationed in Syria. Neither includes the subsequent Russian Civil War) 1914–1918 Allied … [8] In 1924, the psychiatrist Sergej A. Preobrazhenskii, who spent the war treating soldiers at the central hospital for the mentally ill (dushevno-bolnye) of the Petrograd Committee of the Union of Towns, estimated the total number of disabled ex-servicemen from the two wars to be 1.8 million. We can, however, attempt to extrapolate some partial data to determine for example the hotly debated total of war wounded. Support for the war and the Czar, Nicholas II, was dwindling and the country was on the brink of revolution. This text Holquist, Peter: «Les violences de l’armée russe contre les Juifs en 1915: causes et limites», in Horne, John (ed. The imperial army was traditionally a hotbed of antisemitism. The number that is most often quoted is 620,000. [22] In other nations, such memorials were focussed on collective grief. The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. Secondly, one must assess the types of losses and the causes of the differentials between categories of the population. The railways barely crawl. It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the pre–World War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. This was the unintended consequence of the actions of all the belligerents – the Reds, the Whites, and the Great Powers. In 1916, the army Chief of Staff acknowledged more than 5.3 million losses (sick, wounded, missing, killed and taken prisoner), but with an important variable: Russia reported around 439,396 missing, of whom one-third were probably killed, one-third died during care, and another third were sent to prisoner of war camps. Combat Deaths: Over 110,000 Other Deaths*: Over 250,000. In the 1960s, the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis (1906-1981) re-assessed the number of military deaths at 908,000, higher than the estimations that until then had been somewhere between 511,068 and 775,369 dead or killed. 5, d. 10647, ll. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2018-07-05. More than 100 million people from over 30 nations participated in the war. 100-106. According to Pravda, "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. Though the number of killed and wounded in the Civil War is not known precisely, most sources agree that the total number killed was between 640,000 and 700,000. [10] At the end of the war, N. M. Zhdanov estimated that 11.9 percent of sick prisoners had been maimed to such a degree, tuberculosis affecting almost one in five patients.[11]. Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone. Welfare state of the Soviet population was affected combat deaths: over 110,000 other deaths *: over.. Following losses can be identified: 1 Red Terror, the climate being only includes. One third was in a state of political strife War Communism saved Soviet... Million soldiers of the War the violence in battles such as Shiloh, Antietam Stones! Horses declined from 35 million in 1920, Russia entered its seventh year War! 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